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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl5612\margr1149\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn5619\margrsxn3532\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols2\colno1\colw720\colsr1649\colno2\colw720 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb58\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 34}\par \column \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-5\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 TRADE}\par \sect\sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn5612\margrsxn1149\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri0\sb198\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 sport as well as livelihood. Birds and wild animals \expndtw0 were caught in nets and snares \i (pas'a), \i0 or sometimes \expndtw2 they were killed with bow and arrow. Pits were also \expndtw-2 dug for capturing deer, lion, and other beasts.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li7\fi443\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 There is no mention of fishing, and navigation \expndtw1 was limited to rivers by boats of crude construction. \expndtw-4 The absence of anchor or sails indicates that the Rigve-\expndtw-1 dic people did not dare into the open main.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li29\fi0\ri0\sb212\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex85\expndtw-4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Trade}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li11\fi439\ri7\sb162\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Coins were unknown.\super 1\nosupersub  Accordingly, trade was \expndtw-4 carried on by barter and the cow was regarded as the \expndtw-2 standard of value. There are grounds to believe that \expndtw-1 haggling was known, but a bargain, once made, held \expndtw-6 good.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li11\fi439\ri22\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-3\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Life being still primitive and simple, the require\-\expndtw1 ments of the people were few, and could be easily \expndtw3 supplied by themselves. But evidence is not lacking \expndtw-6 to show that specialisation in certain crafts had already \expndtw2 begun. The worker in wood was an important figure \expndtw-6 in Vedic society, as his services were particularly needed \expndtw1 in the construction of chariots, both for war and the \expndtw-1 race. He was still carpenter, joiner, and wheelright in \expndtw-3 one, and the dexterity of his art is often compared to \expndtw2 felicity in composing hymns. We also learn of the \expndtw-4 worker in metal, who forged weapons, ploughshares, \expndtw-2 kettles and other domestic utensils. The general name \expndtw-4 for metal is \i ayas \i0 (Latin \i aes\\ \i0 which may denote either \expndtw3 copper or bronze or iron. Goldsmiths fashioned \expndtw-1 ornaments of gold to minister to the wants of the gay \expndtw4 and the rich. Mention is made of the tanner, who \expndtw-1 tanned leather and made such articles as bow-strings \expndtw0 and casks. The work of sewing, plaiting of mats with}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li65\fi342\ri43\sb367\sa0\sl-198\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1\nosupersub  \i Nis.ka \i0 was not a coin, as supposed by some scholars. It was \expndtw2 probably a kind of ornament worn on the neck.}\par }